Intramammary infections (IMIs) represent a major feature in bovine pathology. The treatment of IMIs concern antimicrobial substances. Therapeutic strategies involve administration of immediate release formulations during lactation with or without long-acting formulations during the dry period. Current treatments are not very successful and cure rates are poor, especially towards Staphylococcus aureus which is responsible for chronic infections and huge economic losses. New strategies have recently been investigated. These include particular immunomodulators like lysostaphin or cytokines, and novel formulations (. liposomes, microparticles or nanoparticles) that allow uptake of the active component by phagocytes and thus prolong an enhanced antibacterial activity.